Poultry Bone Broth & Food Safety

This year’s turkey was a 12 pound, free-range, organic bird from Trader Joe’s that cooked perfectly. After our table feast, I immediately prepare the turkey for the refrigerator & the carcass for bone broth.

Poultry Bone Broth

  • Roasted Turkey (or other poultry) carcass broken into pieces with a meat cleaver to release minerals from the bones. Include the herbs and vegetables you roasted with the turkey & any extra gravy.
  • 2 large carrots, cleaned but unpeeled, cut into 1″ pieces
  • 5 large stalks of green celery cut into 1″ pieces
  • 1 large onion, unpeeled, cut into large chunks
  • 1 leek, green and white chunks (about 2 cups)
  • 12 black peppercorns
  • 6 whole alspice
  • 3 bay leaves
  • 4 springs thyme
  • 5 large springs parsley
  • 8 sage leaves
  • 1 teaspoon iodized sea salt
  • Filtered water

Place bones in a large stock pot. Add water to about 4 inches above the bones. Add all remaining ingredients. Check water level to be sure it’s at least 2 inches above the ingredients. Over high heat, bring to a boil quickly, stirring occasionally.

Reduce heat to a barely visible simmer. This take a bit of checking to get the temperature exact. It is IMPORTANT to check and be sure it is always simmering to insure this food’s safety.

Simmer, uncovered, 24 hours. Yep 24 hours. While I am awake, I stir the broth occasionally & check to insure I have a teeny bubble simmer & that the water level is still about 2 inches above the ingredients. So by the time I go to sleep I am sure the cooking temperature is accurate. Broth making for smaller birds works well in a crock pot or an instant pot.

MY SERVSAFE FOOD PROCTOR SAFETY NOTE: Poultry broths should be kept HOT (=/+165°F) or COLD (=/- 39°F/Refrigerator Temperature) for optimum safety. So preparing properly for freezing or refrigeration is critically important.

After 24 hours, I bring the broth back to a rolling boil for about 2 minutes. Then I remove the pot from the heat & immediately cool.

Although the official “safety timeline” is cool soup from 140°F to 70°F in 2 hours & from 70°F to 40°F in no more than 4 hours, I work fast after my broth is ready to store by straining out the ingredients & spreading them out in a large baking pan & setting them aside to cool for my https://compostnow.org bin & treats for Lucy, my dog. (I’ll sort carrots & meat bits for Lucy or if the bones are totally soft, I’ll Blendtec the whole mess once it cools for her to enjoy as “Lucy Goo.” I take the same care in freezing Lucy’s Goo as I do for the bone broth.)

I use one of three methods to cool the broth. 1) Preferred — I pour the remaining hot broth into stainless steel bowls & set these into larger stainless steel bowls filled with ice & water. I stir these until the broth has cooled to about 65°F (room temperature or cooler). This takes about 30 minutes. 2) or I spread the soup into a very large shallow pan to cool. 3) or I add ice directly to the broth to cool or use an ice wand (on Amazon) to stir the broth cool. Or some combination of the above.

Then I divide the soup into straight sided ball jars, leaving 1″ of head room. I freeze or refrigerate the jars of broth without lids as the condensation in a closed container may also encourage bacteria*. I label the lids with “Turkey (or whatever) Broth” & the date & close the jars as soon as they are 40°F or frozen.

NEVER place hot broth in the fridge or freezer as it will raise the temperature of the appliance; the broth will cool from the outside edges to the center, causing opportunity for bacteria to grow in the warm center. AND the warm broth will raise the temperature of the refrigerator or freezer causing potential for bacterial growth in your other foods.

*When you receive take out food that is hot – immediately remove the lid as condensation may reach the perfect temperature encourage bacterial growth. Also, be sure to cool that food, using the above guidelines for broth, before putting it in the fridge.

All foods require careful temperature control. One that surprised me — RICE is very often a culprit for bacterial growth.

The process for bone broth is WORTH the steps. Enjoy!

Thankful Soup

While the turkey is a tradition – the broth makes the best meals. Just saying.

TURKEY SOUP Think about changing the shapes of your ingredients to give your soup a little visual appeal. Soup should be served HOT as it cools fast.

  • 1 quart turkey bone broth (next blog)
  • 1 cup sliced celery – crescents
  • 1/2 cup thinly sliced leeks – circles
  • 1/2 cup sliced carrots – circles or half circles or flowers
  • 1/3 cup mushrooms cut in random sized pieces (I used chanterelles.)
  • 2 cups romaine, butter or iceberg lettuce, chopped or chiffonade cut
  • 1 cup cooked turkey or other poultry chunks OPTIONAL
  • 2 cups cooked pasta (from Italy) your choice. Keep hot. (See below.)
  • 3 tablespoons butter (1 to heat turkey/2 for soup garnish)
  • 1 teaspoon olive oil (to heat turkey)
  • Garnish with poultry seasoning https://chamberslife.com/2018/11/16/seasonal-seasoning/ infused butter & a parsley sprig

Bring the broth to a simmer. Add celery; simmer 10 minutes. Add leeks; simmer 5 minutes. Add carrots; simmer 10 minutes. Add mushrooms; simmer 5 minutes. Prepare turkey.

While soup cooks, in a small skillet heat your cooked turkey chunks in a little butter, olive oil and poultry seasoning.

Just before serving add lettuce into simmering HOT soup.

TO SERVE: Be sure all of your ingredients are HOT! Preheat the soup bowl by filling with boiling water. Keep the noodles hot in a colander set over a simmering pot of water. Keep the turkey on low heat.

Empty the boiling water from the bowls. Working quickly, add noodles to each bowl, top with turkey & then ladel the soup over the noodles & turkey. Top with about 1 teaspoon of seasoned butter, a few grinding of black pepper & a parsley leaf.

At my chef school (William Angliss, Australia) Richard, my amazing teacher, said, “The smaller the garnish the more expensive the restaurant.”

Turkey Bone Broth is the next blog up.

Funghi Marinati

A Great Appetizer & Healthy Snack – MARINATED MUSHROOMS

  • 2/3 cup olive oil
  • 1/2 cup water
  • Juice of 2 lemons (4 tablespoons)
  • 2 bay leaves
  • 4 large garlic cloves (crushed and peeled)
  • 1/2 teaspoon sea salt
  • 6 whole black peppercorns
  • 1 pound button mushrooms (small or cut to same bite size)

In an enamel or stainless saucepan, combine ingredients except mushrooms & bring to a boil. Cover & simmer 15 minutes. Add the mushrooms & simmer 5 minutes, stirring gently.

Let the mushrooms cool in the marinade. Serve at room temperature. Store in a Ball jar, or other glass container, in the refrigerator for up to 7 days. Delicious snack! You can also add them to other dishes for texture & zing.

Chocolate Heaven Hearts & Popsicles

1/2 avocado (1/2 cup)

1/2 banana (1/3 cup)

1 peeled naval orange (1 cup)

1/4 cup peeled & seeded cucumber

6 dates

2 Brazil nuts

1 Shiitake mushroom (that has a tan*)

1/2 cup So Delicious coconut milk

2 tablespoons dry coconut milk

3 tablespoons hemp seed

1 healing tablespoon cocoa powder (or more)

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon

1 heaping tablespoon cacao nibs (or more)

1 tablespoon reishi mushroom powder

1/2 teaspoon Penzey’s double strength vanilla

Dash of sea salt

Dash of fresh ground black pepper (or one peppercorn)

Blend until creamy smooth. Enjoy on the spot or freeze in heart shaped molds or make popsicles. The hearts make a delightful little surprise – just set them out about 20 minutes before serving. Add whatever makes you smile.

Irresistible Scallion Blinis

Inspired by two HUGE bunches of Raleigh City Farm green onions, I spent Friday in the test kitchen. This recipe is a keeper! Served here with an Asian dipping sauce, they are also delicious topped with caramelized onions & scallions infused with Cooper & Thief oak barrel aged red wine & topped with cashew triple cream (nut cheese). Have a party. Serve these.

Scallion Blinis

  • 1/3 c almond flour
  • 1/3 c regular flour or gluten free
  • 1/2 t baking powder
  • 1/8 t baking soda
  • 1/4 t salt
  • 1/8 t black pepper
  • 1 t psyllium husks
  • 1 t sesame seeds
  • 1/4 t turmeric
  • 1/4 t onion powder (optional)
  • 1/2 c scallion, white to about 1″ of green, minced
  • 1 egg
  • 1 T melted ghee
  • 1 T pumpkin puree (or applesauce or potato or sweet potato puree)
  • 1T Avocado oil & 1 t ghee for frying

Prepare dipping sauce (recipe follows) so the flavors meld.

Combine the dry ingredients & scallions in one bowl & combine the wet ingredients in another — excluding the avocado oil & ghee for frying. Add the wet combo to the dry & stir well. The batter should be relatively moist & hold its shape in a teaspoon.

In a flat pan or griddle, heat the avocado oil & ghee to medium (375°F). Drop the batter by teaspoonfuls onto the heated surface, shaping them a bit with the back of a small spoon dipped in water. When the blini looses its gloss, flip it and cook the other side until brown.

Place cooked blinis on a paper towel lined wire rack for a bit. Serve immediately; keep them warm in a 200°F oven; or serve at room temperature. They reheat very well after refrigerated by pan frying again. Makes about 24 blinis.

Asian Dipping Sauce

  • 1/4 c soy sauce
  • 2 T rice wine vinegar
  • 2 T toasted sesame oil
  • 1 T mirin
  • 1 T agave or honey or maple syrup
  • 1 garlic clove (pressed or hyper-minced)
  • 1 t ginger hyper-minced
  • Heat – your choice – a dash cayenne or a bit of chili garlic paste
  • 2 T very thinly sliced scallion (green part)

Mix all ingredients & let stand for an hour. Serve. Refrigerate to store.

Cooper & Thief Caramelized Onions & Scallions

  • 1 c yellow onion cut into crescents
  • 6 scallions, white part only, cut into 1/4 inch diagonal slices
  • 1 t butter
  • 1 t avocado oil
  • 1/4 c Cooper & Thief red wine blend
  • 1/4 t sea salt
  • Freshly ground black pepper

In a small skillet heat the butter & oil. Add the onions & scallions & salt & pepper. Cook stirring constantly until the alliums are translucent & start to turn golden. Add wine, salt & pepper. Cook until all liquids evaporate.

Top blinis with caramelized onions & bits of triple cream (or brie). Serve warm or at room temperature.

Thank you Raleigh City Farm!

ENJOY! Alliums are HUGE immunity boosters!

My Fresh Farm Breakfast — Vege Tartine

I am so amazingly fortunate to have my own community farm www.raleighcityfarm. Gracing my plate & my health this morning — food that is locally & sustainably grown; is pesticide & herbicide free & tended by passionate professional Farmer Josh Sattin.
My harvest is pictured here. A quick zip up to Raleigh City Farm’s COVID smart Farmstand thrills me. First I get to see the plots of gorgeous vegetables & herbs organized as a work of art. Then I easily order my produce, flowers, bird house, bird feeder, even micro greens with a sprouting young farmer John (pun intended) NEW this week.

The recipe — VEGE TARTINE

  • 1 slice rustic sourdough, toasted
  • 1/4 avocado or smashed great northern beans or refried beans
  • 3 T extra virgin olive oil
  • 1 t Greek herbs (or your favorite herb/spice blend or salt & pepper)
  • 1 pattypan (scallop) squash or other summer squash, sliced
  • 1 large green onion, white & a bit of green cut in long strips. Green tops: chopped & saved for garnish
  • 1 carrot (enough for 8 diagonal carrot slices or more)
  • 1 French radish sliced
  • 1 handful of Russian Kale torn
  • Fresh micro sprouts (garnish & health!)
  • 1 t balsamic vinegar
  • 1 T pickled onions or your favorite zing (capers, sauerkraut, olives, pickles, lemon peel, sriracha, salsa)
  • 1 t (or more) hemp seeds (so healthy)
  • Fresh coarsely ground black pepper

Preheat oven to 400°F (convection speeds roasting time). Hand rub the veggies with 1 T (more if needed) olive oil & herbs. Place in specific vegetable type groups on roasting pan in case one cooks faster than another so they’re easy to take out. Bake about 10 minutes, checking after 5 (removing kale) until the veggies are done to your preference.

Meanwhile toast the bread & smash the avocado on it. Drizzle with oil. Layer the veggies on the toast. Drizzle with olive oil & balsamic vinegar. Sprinkle with pickled onions, hemp hearts & black pepper.

Garnish with sprouts.

TRIPLE THE ROASTED VEGES — They’ll be delicious later!

See you next Wednesday at Raleigh City Farm 4-7. Check the site for each week’s harvest. https://raleighcityfarm.org/farmstand

Disappearing Carrot Almond Lemon Cake

Well, there is a big hunk out of this cake. And I ATE IT! Inspired by Deborah Madison’s fabulous book Vegetable Literacy, it’s delicious. I only tweaked the recipe a bit.
Raleigh City Farm-stand @raleighcityfarm Wednesdays 4-7
has carrots (green onions, kale & French radishes) this week!
  • 4 T melted & cooled + 1 t butter (1t for pan)
  • 1 1/2 C blanched almond flour
  • 2 t fine lemon zest (grated from about 2 lemons)
  • 3/4 C + 2 T sugar
  • 1 1/4 C cake flour
  • 2 t baking powder
  • 1/4 t salt
  • 4 large eggs (room temperature is better)
  • 1/4 t each almond & lemon extract
  • 1/2 t vanilla extract (double strength)
  • 2 C finely grated carrots (not packed cups)
  • Confectioner’s sugar (optional for top)

Heat oven to 375°F. Parchment line a 9″ springform or cake pan, using 1 t butter to stick paper to pan sides & to lightly butter the batter side of the paper. Sprinkle a bit of the almond flower in the cake pan bottom over the buttered parchment.

Mix the almond flour, lemon zest & 2 T sugar in. In another bowl, whisk together the flour, baking powder & salt.

In an electric mixer, whip the eggs on high for about 2 minutes. Add the 3/4 c sugar & whip until pale, thick & creamy, about 5 minutes.

Reduce speed to low. Add extracts, almond flour mixture & carrots. Mix until well combined. Add butter & mix until just combined. Fold in flour mixture, combining gently until the dry mixture is just incorporated.

Pour batter into baking pan. (I pull the batter a bit from the center so it bakes more evenly.) Bake 30 minutes until lightly browned & the center springs back. It will most likely have a couple of cracks in the top when it’s done. Remove from oven to a cooling rack. Let the cake cool completely in the pan.

Remove the cake from the pan & display on a cake stand with a glass dome so you can walk by & easily eat it. Hence the name “disappearing.”

P.S. Sprinkle the top with confectioner’s sugar before serving, if you like. I never made it to this step.

Russian Kale – Two Yummy (очень вкусно) Ways!

Raleigh City Farm FRESH HARVEST NOW Russian Kale. www.raleighcityfarm.org
Toasted Kale Chips with Tasty Nutritional Yeast Sprinkles
Cruciferous Slaw — Kale & purple cabbage join with carrots, seeds, blueberries & a Dijon garlic splash.

TOASTED KALE CHIPS

  • 4 – 6 C kale leaves torn into 2-3 inch pieces
  • 2 T olive oil
  • 1 t each white & black sesame seeds
  • Greek seasoning or sea salt & fresh pepper

Preheat oven to 400°F (convection setting preferred). Mix kale with all ingredients. Spread the kale in a single layer on a parchment lined baking sheet. Bake 12-20 minutes, checking every 5 minutes or so until kale is crispy. That might mean pulling out leaves as they are done. They are delicious with or without the yeast sprinkles.

NUTRITIONAL YEAST SPRINKLES

  • 2 T nutritional yeast
  • 1 T olive or avocado oil
  • 4 drops Worcestershire sauce
  • 1/4 t dry oregano
  • dash cayenne

Mix all together with a fork until the mixture forms crumbs. Sprinkle over warm kale chips.

CRUCIFEROUS SLAW

  • 3 C diced kale (think smaller pieces for a tender bite)
  • 1 C diced red cabbage
  • 1/2 C grated carrot
  • 1/4 C minced parsley
  • 2 T each pumpkin, hemp & sunflower seeds
  • 1/2 C fresh blueberries

DIJON GARLIC SPLASH

  • 3 T olive oil (I used the very best – which has a kick to it)
  • 2 t Dijon mustard – the real thing from Dijon, France
  • 2 t Braggs vinegar
  • 1 clove very finely minced garlic
  • 1 t honey (taste the dressing before you add)
  • Sea salt & fresh black pepper

In a small bowl mix the splash. In a larger bowl add slaw ingredients, and toss with the splash. Serve at room temperature. Top with blueberries to serve. (Sans blueberries, I like this as a sandwich relish too.)

Is this healthy? Yes EAT ALL YOU WANT! Often.

Radishes Roasted For your health!

Raleigh City Farm French Breakfast Radishes are delicious roasted!
Any fresh green topped radishes are great too.

Shop Raleigh City Farm Farmstand Wednesdays 4-7 https://raleighcityfarm.org/farmstand

All you need – Radishes, EVOO, seasoning of choice (Greek follows).

• Radishes • EVOO • Seasoning Greek blend follows. • Balsamic vinegar or Dijon mustard (optional)

Preheat oven to 400° F. I use a convection setting.

Wash your radishes. Wash your radishes again. And one more time. In the commercial kitchen we wash anything with greens at least 3 times to clear the grit. Drain on a clean tea towel. BTW your towels should be washed in non scented, natural detergent.

Radishes are really pretty so try to serve them close to their original design. Carefully remove the green tops. Slice the radishes in half, keeping the roots intact. I’ve tried to keep the greens attached & roast them whole but the greens usually cook so much faster than the roots so separating them works better.

Toss the greens with olive oil & seasoning in one bowl & the roots in another. Place roots on one side of a parchment lined pan. Roast for about 10 minutes. Add greens to pan spread in one layer. Roast for 5 minutes. You want the greens just crisp not burnt so watch them.

Serve. Drizzle with fresh EVOO. If you like, mix the EVOO with a bit of Dijon mustard or Balsamic vinegar. Great cold too.

  • Greek Spice Blend *3x for fresh herbs
  • 1 T dry oregano*
  • 1 t garlic powder
  • 1/2 t onion powder
  • 1 T dry marjoram*
  • 1 T dill weed*
  • 1 t parsley*
  • 1 T lemon pepper seasoning
  • 1 t sea salt
  • 1/2 t black pepper

MUSINGS about radishes. Radishes can be spicy hot. Roasting mellows the heat, as does steaming or blanching. You can parboil & then quickly ice & add to your salads to calm their dominant bite. Or enjoy a crunchy fresh one.

Boasting vitamin C & potassium & fiber &…, radishes BOOST IMMUNITY, regulate blood pressure & EASE & even PREVENT respiratory problems.

Oui! French Escape Madeleines

Let’s go to the 18th century when baking in molds began. Oh wait…let’s read Proust’s In Search of Lost Time and dip our petit madeleines in our London Fog (bergamot tea, foamed almond milk with vanilla syrup) & selectively remember why we just know that now & then cake comforts us. Enjoy your sweet life!
  • 2 large eggs at room temperature
  • 1/2 c sugar
  • 3/4 t vanilla 1/2 t almond extract or vice versa depending on your taste or traditional = 3/4 t vanilla 1 T lemon zest
  • 1/2 c unsalted butter melted set aside to cool + 2 T butter melted to oil tin
  • 1 c flour
  • 1/4 t salt (or less)
  • 1/2 t baking powder

Tendre, s’il vous plaît. Whisk flour, salt & baking powder in small bowl. In mixer with wire whip, beat eggs & sugar 6-8 minutes until light & thick. Add flavorings. Fold in flour mixture, gently. Take 1/4 c of the batter & mix with the 1/2 c melted butter until the butter is incorporated. Then thoroughly fold this butter batter into the egg, sugar, flour batter, gently. Cover & refrigerate for 30 minutes.

Meanwhile oil molds VERY WELL. EVEN if you have non stick molds, oil them well. The butter helps the petit cakes brown too. Preheat oven to 350° F.

Organize your tea ingredients: Begamot (Earl Grey) Tea, almond or milk of choice, vanilla or vanilla syrup, sugar. Make your tea while your cakes bake.

Place 1 tablespoon of batter in the center of each of 22* VERY WELL oiled 3″ x 1.75″ mold. Bake 10 to 14 minutes. (Ovens and atmospheres vary.) They are done when the edges are just brown. You can test with your finger by pressing gently. If it’s done it’ll resist a bit & spring back. Remove from oven. Wait 1 minute (no longer) & with a table knife coax your madeleines onto a wire rack to cool. (OR DON’T WAIT – I like one warm from the oven.) Store in air tight container or freeze.

Eat within a few minutes. (Did I say that?) I meant days. (I am a glutton for anything French or cake like or filled with glorious memories.) I am pretty sure the benefits of bergamot & black tea totally counteract the sugar sins.

Some folks like them sprinkled with (more) sugar. I like mine naked with Earl Grey tea. ENJOY!

*The shells in my tin are about 3″ x 1-3/4″. There are 24 shells but this batter made 22 perfectly. (Rumor has it you can use real bivalve shells.)